6 Types of Forging Methods: Your Best Guide to Forging Processes
Types of Forging Methods
Metal can be shaped using two very distinct metal manufacturing processes called forging vs casting. If you want to understand the types of forging methods, you need to first understand the forging industry. During in the metal forging procedures, metals are shaped and molded by compressive forces. Forging methods is one of the more important in the iron and steel-making industry, and is commonly used in the production of metals. It is regarded as a huge source of productivity. Its application depends on various factors such as maximum strength, customized sixes, and performance.
Buyers have a wide range of alternatives when selecting a form of forging to create a crucial metal component. Making the best decision might be difficult because each technique has unique benefits and drawbacks that have to do with costs and logistics. The best value is provided by metal forging in terms of both cost and general quality. Methods like abrasive blasting and mechanical seals are often used to repair and reimburse metal forgings and maintain their quality.
There are many industrial applications for various forging processes. The main sources of renewable energy – water, wind and solar energy industry make use of this process to manufacture hydraulic turbine, wind turbine (history of wind turbines), and floating wind turbine, and other metal parts. In this era of rising oil prices, even the largest oil producing countries are switching to renewable sources of energy for a better sustainable future.
Types of Forging Methods: Basis of Classification
You can classify the types of forging methods on the basis of temperature and metal shapes. They are:
Classification of Forging Based on Temperature
Cold Forging Process
Although any temperature below that of recrystallization is feasible, cold forging normally refers to the metal forging at room temperature. Cold forging simply cannot be done with many metals, such as steel with high carbon content. Despite this obstacle, cold forging consistently outperforms its warmer counterpart in terms of contamination, surface polish, homogeneity, and dimensional control.
Hot Forging Process
The metal must be heated above its recrystallization temperature in order to be hot forged. Heating metals to 2,300 degrees Fahrenheit may be necessary. The reduction in energy needed to form the metal properly is the main advantage of hot forging. This is due to the fact that extreme heat reduces yield strength while increasing ductility. Chemical irregularities are also removed, which benefits hot forged items.
Classification of Forging Based on Metal Shapes (Drop Forging)
A top die attached to a ram and a bottom die attached to a hammer, anvil, or bolster is used in open die forging to shape heated metal pieces. By carefully hammering or pressing the workpiece, metal pieces are gradually molded into the correct configuration while being treated at their proper temperatures, which can range from 500°F to 2400°F. On flat dies, the majority of open die forgings are made. However, depending on the desired part configuration and its size, loose tools, mandrels, V-dies, and round swaging dies are also employed.
The open die forging process, though sometimes thought of in terms of larger, simpler-shaped pieces like bars, blanks, rings, hollows, or spindles, is actually the best method for creating “custom-designed” metal parts.
Closed Die Forgings
One of the primary forging processes, known as closed die forging, entails pressing or hammering prefabricated metal blanks into a set of dies that are shaped as a three-dimensional negative of the component to be manufactured. In closed die forging, the workpiece is completely enclosed by the hammer and anvil, pushing the metal to fill the dies entirely. Closed die forging is able to create complicated pieces with precise tolerances and an almost infinite range of 3-D shapes.
Open die forging, in which the die only contacts a portion of the workpiece at a time, is different from closed die forging. Closed die forging can be relatively expensive to design the procedures and tooling at first, but it is the most efficient forging method when there is a high volume of production as the recurring cost becomes low.
Other Types of Forging Methods
Isothermal Forging Process
The materials and the die are both heated to the very same temperature during the isothermal forging process. The word “iso” signifies “equal,” hence the name. With a reduced forging temperature than other metals like steel, such as aluminum, this forging technique is frequently employed to forge aluminum. Forging temperatures for steels and super alloys can range from 930 to 1,260 °C, whereas those for aluminum are at 430 °C.
Benefits include cheaper machining costs and decreased scrap rates due to near net forms and excellent reproducibility of the metal product. Due to the reduced heat loss, smaller machinery can be employed to produce the forging, which is an additional benefit.
Roll Forging Process
Maximizing the length of rods or wires involves roll forging. In order to form the metal, the maker puts hot metal bars between two cylindrical rolls featuring grooves that revolve and exert increasing pressure. These grooves’ exact geometry shapes the metal component to the required shape. The absence of flashing and the good grain structure of this forging technique are advantages. Roll forging is a metal forging method rather than a rolling technique, despite the fact that it uses rolls to create parts and components. The automotive sector regularly uses roll forging to create parts. Additionally, it is employed in the forging of hand tools and knives.
The global energy industry investments by several countries in the power and energy industry have led to an increase in the demand for various metal parts, which in turn has led to the upcoming of the forging industry. Although high energy usage, materials resources waste, and other such environmental issues are common in this industry, various environment management solutions are followed to handle this problem. Some of the steps taken for attaining energy efficiency in UAE for low carbon emission are smart buildings in UAE. The requirement for parts will rise along with Electric Vehicles (EV) demand, thereby offsetting market effects on the forging sector.
RSE FZE specializes in making forged parts for your industrial applications. The types of forging methods it follows depend on the industry you are belonging to and the requirements that are specified by your company. Our team of engineers highly values your choices, which makes us your No.1 Forging Solutions Partner in UAE.