Open Die Forgings vs Closed Die Forgings: Which is Better?

Open Die Forgings - RSE FZE



Forging is considered the backbone of the manufacturing industry. The forging industry is marked as one of the most cost-effective and high-quality processes in the market. Often there is competition in this industry – forging vs casting. But since the particle flows of the metal are changed to fit the form of the object, forged steel is often stronger and more dependable than molds and plate metal. This process is used in the manufacturing process of the wind turbine, floating wind turbine, hydraulic turbine, etc. Since the relevance of renewable energy has been realized, many countries facing rising oil prices are concentrating on the use of gravity batteries, wind and solar energy, electric vehicles(EV), and others. 
Abrasive blasting and mechanical seals are often used for reimbursement in the manufacturing industry. The power and energy industry has been making use of the forging process for the last decades. The global energy industry investments by several countries has boosted up the forging industry. Various types of forging methods are available and they are classified based on their processes. One such type is open die forging.

Open Die Forgings – Introduction


Open Die Forgings – A type of Drop Forging Process

The method of “open die forging” involves bending a chunk of metal among several dies which do not completely enclose it. The metal is changed as the dies repeatedly “hammer” or “stamp” the material until the required shape is obtained. To obtain the tolerances necessary for the finished standards, products created using open forging frequently require additional machining and refinement. Open die forging is frequently used for small-batch, simple-than-complex products including discs, rings, sleeves, cylinders, and shafts. Open die forging also allows for the production of customized forms. Due to the repetitive working of the steel billet, the strength of the grain structure will rise during the deformation process.

These straightforward dies often have a flat, semi-round, or V form. The metal is never entirely encased during the open-die forging process, regardless of the die form. The metal is altered by the dies as they repeatedly hammer or press it to form it into the desired shape. Since the dimensions created by hammering during the open-die process can be erroneous, it is not advised for complex designs and frequently requires precision machining to be finished.

In addition to producing simpler-shaped pieces, advanced open die forging may also create complex shapes. Open die forging is typically used to forge steel and similar alloys. Open die forging can also be used to shape a variety of different metals, including copper, nickel, etc.

Advantages of Open Die Forgings

Better microstructure and managed to improve high ductility
Grain flow that is constant and smaller grain size
Strengthening and extended portion of life
less waste from materials
reduced likelihood of voids
significant cost savings

Disadvantages of Open Die Forgings

It cannot produce items with higher precision and close tolerance.
To reach the desired dimensions, machining is frequently necessary. There are no certain consistencies in its performances or results.

Closed Die Forgings – Introduction

Closed-Die-Forgings-Types of Forging Methods


Closed Die Forgings – A type of Drop Forging Process

A piece of metal is compressed under intense pressure to fill an enclosed die imprint during closed die forging, sometimes referred to as impression die forging. To achieve final shapes and dimensions for some unusual shapes, a second forging procedure is necessary. The price of a closed die forged item can be affected by the type of material, the degree of tolerance, and whether heat treatment is required.

The impression-die forging method, also called closed-die forging can produce an essentially unlimited range of 3-D forms out from aluminum, steel, titanium, as well as other alloys, weighing anywhere from a few ounces and more than 25 tons. Impression-die forgings are frequently created using  mechanical presses, hydraulic presses, and hammers with capacity of up to  20,000 tons, 50,000 tons, & 50,000 lbs., respectively.

Advantages of Closed Die Forgings

The creation of the interior grain structure improves the products’ tightness and strength.
For big production runs, it is an economical process
No significant restrictions
improved surface quality
Because of its tight tolerances, less or no machining is necessary.
It is possible to produce dimensions with finer tolerances and net forms.

Disadvantages of Closed Die Forgings

Due to the high cost of die production, it is not very cost-effective for short batches.
The work environment presented by closed die forging is hazardous

Open Die Forging vs Closed Die Forgings – Differences between the two Drop Forging Processes

S.No. Basis of Difference Open Die Forgings Closed Die Forgings
1. Forging Process It involves two ways of processing. Either you can deform a metal by placing it on a stationery anvil or compressing the metal by placing it between simple dies A piece of metal is compressed under intense pressure to fill an enclosed die imprint during closed die forging
2. Also Known as Free Forging or Smith Forging Impression Die Forging
3. Cost Cost Saving Forging Process It won’t be cost-effective for short runs as this forging process has a higher cost of production. It also involves higher setup costs as the machining and furnaces required are expensive.
4. Manufacturing Products It is good for manufacturing simple forging products such as disc, sleeves and cylinders. It is good for manufacturing custom and complex forging products.
5. Machining More machining is required to attain the precision dimensions Lower or no machining is required to attain the precision dimensions
6. Tolerance Achievement Not capable of achieving tolerance and high quality forged precision parts Able to attain the higher tolerance level industrial applications and precision parts
7. Production Runs Suitable for a short or a long production run Only suitable for Longer production runs
8. Quantity of Production Small Quantity of Production Large Quantity of Production


Before deciding which forging method is ideal for your project, a number of criteria should be taken into account. Open die workpieces must be constantly moved through the process of forging, which is one of the most important factors to weigh when choosing between closed and open die forging techniques.

The requirement to move the workpiece continuously while it is being worked on is the biggest barrier in the open die forging process. It calls for certain intricate mechanical controls and, on occasion, even knowledgeable human operators. Contrarily, closed die forging is a considerably easier operation that can be completely automated with little human input. However, open die forging is strongly desired since it typically results in some significant cost reductions and even minimal material waste.

On the other hand, closed die forgings involve little to no human intervention and are completely automated. Open die forgings have considerable cost-saving advantages because there is less automation involved in the procedure. However, closed die forging would be the ideal choice if greater automation is the goal.

The forging industry has a large impact on environment management solutions causing a hindrance to our sustainable future. High energy usage, materials resources waste, and environmental issues are common in the industry. One of the largest oil producing countries, UAE is also identified by the existence of many oil and gas corporates, that use forged elements such as pumps, ball valves, and turbines among many others. Low carbon emissions, energy efficiency in UAE and smart buildings in UAE have made Dubai: A Sustainable and Smart City to live in.  

We are the #1 manufacturer and supplier in delivering the best open die and closed die forgings for all the industrial applications in Dubai and UAE Market.


For the manufacture of metal parts and components, RSE FZE Forge is your go-to source for professional closed and open die forging services. To learn more about our custom forging service choices, please contact us.


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